Portable 

The KD2 Pro is a fully portable field and lab thermal properties analyzer developed out of 30+ years of research experience on heat and mass transfer in soils and other porous materials. Tested against known standards, the KD2 Pro uses the transient line heat source method to measure thermal conductivity, resistivity, diffusivity, and specific heat.

 

Accurate

The compact KD2 Pro controller is much more than a simple readout for time and temperature. A proprietary algorithm fits time and temperature data with exponential integral functions using a nonlinear least squares method. This fully mathematical solution delivers thermal conductivity/resistivity to within ±10%.

 

Correct

The KD2 Pro corrects for temperature drift. Temperature changes of a thousandth of a degree per second—the sun warming the soil, or someone walking into the lab— destroy the accuracy of thermal properties calculations. Unlike other thermal needle systems, the KD2 Pro corrects for linear temperature drift that cause erroneous readings.

 

Complies with ASTM, and IEEE Standards

For more information, see this application note.

ACCURACY

± 5 to ± 10% Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity

± 10% Specific Heat

± 10% Thermal Diffusivity

MEASUREMENT SPEED 1, 2, 5, & 10 min. read times depending on measurement type (see user's manual for more information).
DATA STORAGE 4,095 readings, flash memory
COMPLIANCE TO STANDARDS ASTM Standard D5334-08 and IEEE Standard 442-1981
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OF SENSORS -50° to 150°C
BATTERY SOURCE 4 AA
AUTO-READ MODE Users can collect unattended data at user-defined intervals in the auto-read mode
TYPE Ultra low-power 16-bit microcontroller w/ 24-bit A/D converter
DISPLAY Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 7.5 cm x 4 cm
CASE DIMENSIONS 15.5 cm x 9.5 cm x 3.5 cm 
INCLUDED ACCESSORIES

KS-1 Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity sensor (for liquids)

TR-1 Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity sensor (for solids)

SH-1 Dual-Needle Thermal Diffusivity and Specfic Heat sensor (for solids)

User's manual

Pelican carrying case

Readout stand

Performance verification standards

Thermal grease

Drill bit for drilling pilot holes in materials 

Concrete pilot pin

KD2 Pro download utility

RS232 cable

CALIBRATION Each KD2 Pro comes factory calibrated and includes performance verification standards
RANGE OF MEASUREMENTS

K: 0.02 to 4 Wm-1 C-1

D: 0.1 to 1.0 mm2s-1

R: 0.25 to 50mC W-1

C: 0.5 to 4 MJ m-3 C-1 

* Accuracy and measurement range vary with sensor type. See Comparisons tab.

 

  TR-1-10cm-Needle-small.png RK-1-60mm-Needle-small.png KS-1-60mm-Needle-small.png SH-1-30mm-Dual-Needle-small.png
SENSOR TR-1 RK-1 KS-1 SH-1
MEASUREMENT Read time- 5 Minutes Read time- 10 Minutes Read time- 60 Seconds Read time- 2 Minutes
ACCURACY (Conductivity): ±10% from 0.2 - 4 W/(m· K)
±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.01 - 0.2 W/(m· K)
(Conductivity): ±10% from 0.2 - 6 W/(m· K)
±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.1 - 0.2 W/(m· K)
(Conductivity): ±5% from 0.2 - 2 W/(m· K)
±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 - 0.2 W/(m· K)
(Conductivity) ±10% from 0.2 - 2 W/(m· K)
±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 - 0.2 W/(m· K)
(Diffusivity) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
(Volumetric Specific Heat) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
RANGES

K: 0.1 to 4 W/(m·K)

R: 25 to 1000 °C·cm/W 

K: 0.1 to 6 W/(m·K)

R: 17 to 1000°C cm/W

K: 0.02 to 2 W/(m·K)

R: 50 to 5000°C cm/W

K: 0.02 to 2.00 W /(m· K) 

R: 50 to 5000 °C·cm/W 

0.1 to 1 mm2/s (diffusivity)

0.5 to 4 mJ/(m3K) (volumetric specific heat

ENVIRONMENT –50 to 150°C –50 to 150°C –50 to 150°C –50 to 150°C
DIMENSIONS

10 cm length

2.4 mm diameter

6 cm length

3.9 mm diameter

6 cm length

1.27 mm diameter

30 mm length

1.30 mm diameter

2 needles, 6 mm spacing

SAMPLE SIZE Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

KD2 Pro Sensor Compatibility

SAMPLE MATERIAL TR-1 RK-1 KS-1 SH-1
LOW VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. WATER) No No Best1 No
HIGH VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. GLYCEROL, OIL) Ok No Best No
INSULATION AND INSULATING MATERIALS No No Best5 No
MOIST SOIL Best Ok No Ok
DRY SOIL, POWDERS, GRANULAR MATERIALS Best2 Ok No Ok
CONCRETE Best3 Best3 No Ok4
ROCK Best3 Best3 No Ok4
OTHER SOLIDS Best3 Ok No Ok
VOLUMETRIC SPECIFIC HEAT No No No Best
THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY No No No Best

1 In low viscosity liquids, the read time should be set to the minimum allowed 1 minute to avoid free convection.

2 In dry granular materials where contact resistance can be significant, extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

3 In solid materials where a pilot hole has been drilled and contact resistance can be significant, using thermal grease and extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

4 The SH-1 sensor will take accurate measurements in rock and cured concrete, but it is very difficult to drill small diameter, parallel holes in these materials to accommodate the SH-1 needles.

5 The KS-1 needle in default mode (Low Power, 1 min read time). Heater temperatures with the other probes are too high for insulation measurements.